Skip to Content

Tax Credits Have Changed Higher Ed Funding, but Who Benefits?

Tax Credits Have Changed Higher Ed Funding, but Who Benefits?

The late-1990’s advent of the Hope and Lifetime Learning tax credit programs has significantly changed how higher education financial aid is provided to individuals. According to a recent study by Harvard’s Bridget Long, the program’s 1998 cost was $3.4 billion. In 2000 it was $4.9 billion—about 150% the cost of Pell grants.

Who benefits? State treasuries, not students, says Long. Apparently unintended, this consequence results from states calculating that the credits allow them to raise tuitions. One California analyst cited by Long says the credits will “create opportunities to increase the effective federal subsidy of California’s higher education programs.” The analyst estimates that tax credit-facilitated tuition increases would increase annual community college funding by $100 million without impacting the state budget.

The study reports other unintended program consequences, including:

The study concludes that, “these results document the importance of considering how a federal program affects the behavior of states and institutions in ways that might undermine the original policy.”

Long, Bridget T. "The Impact of Higher Education Tax Credits for Higher Education Expenses", Working Paper 9553, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2003. The full report can be purchased online at: