Skip to Content

To Students of Color: The Profession Needs You!

What’s Needed to Retain Future Educators

Tiffany McClary attended Palm Beach County, Fla., public schools from grade school to high school, and she excelled. But McClary, who is Black, says she never really felt like she belonged.

A senior elementary education major at Florida A&M University (FAMU), McClary says her Historically Black University makes her feel right at home. “After experiencing four years at Florida A&M University, and being taught by many teachers of color, I must say it feels better to be taught by your own,” she adds.

McClary’s is an experience a growing number of students of color in the nation’s public schools don’t have, and may never know. That’s because students of color make up almost half of the public school population, but teachers of color represent just 18 percent of the profession. Recent data from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education point to a small pool of future educators of color in the pipeline. Of the bachelor’s degrees awarded in 2013 – 2014, Black teacher candidates earned just 5 percent and Hispanic candidates 6 percent.

But if public schools are to keep pace and meet the needs of the rising population of racially and ethnically diverse students, they will need to recruit more high-quality minority educators. It matters who teaches students of color. The research says that when students have teachers who look like them, and are more culturally responsive to their needs, students benefit academically and in other ways, too. Absenteeism, suspensions, and expulsions are reduced, while test scores, levels of engagement, advanced-level course enrollment, graduation rates, and college enrollment grow. Also, teachers of color are more likely to work in urban and high-poverty schools, often feeling they are fulfilling an important responsibility.

As districts nationwide struggle to recruit teachers for underserved populations and for harder-to-fill teaching positions in math, science, and special education, HBCUs and other minority serving institutions can be important resources. But understanding why more college and high school students aren’t drawn to the teaching profession in the first place may be the first step.

Elizabeth Davenport, Ph.D., J.D., a FAMU College of Education professor, points to several reasons more students of color aren’t joining the ranks of educators. Among them, she adds, is their own negative school experiences.

Recalling a North Carolina A&T survey that asked high-achieving, Black, male high school students whether they would make teaching their chosen career, Davenport says it isn’t unusual that respondents reported that prior rocky experiences might prevent them from pursuing the profession.

“If you had a bad experience, the very last thing you’ll pursue is a career that would put you back in a classroom,” she says. “I think a lot of African-American students feel disenfranchised, especially Black males.”

Find Ways to Raise the Status of the Profession

Instead of teaching, says Davenport, many high-achieving students today are encouraged to pursue high-status careers that pay well.

There was a time, Davenport says, when “education was the middle class profession for African Americans and minorities, but now other professions, like medicine and law, are very much part of our middle class foundation and students are directed out of teaching.” As a result, “teaching has gotten a bad name” and the profession, little respect, Davenport adds.

Even Davenport was discouraged from pursuing a teaching career at the University of Michigan. She’d been president of Future Teachers of America for three consecutive years, but was told that “smart” girls don’t become teachers. So Davenport went to law school. Eventually she returned to education, but that early message was clear: “There are more prestigious careers than teaching.”

Chelsey Jo Herrig, chair of the NEA Student Program, agrees that this narrative of public school teachers needs to change. “We need to be viewed as professionals with a high-quality set of unique skills,” Herrig says.

Remove Financial Barriers

But even if the education profession were considered more prestigious and attractive to students, an even bigger barrier to recruitment is the low earning potential of teachers combined with high student debt.

All teachers grapple with salary challenges, but teachers of color are more likely to teach in public schools in urban, high-poverty communities where school budgets are the tightest. Data from the 2011 – 2012 National Center for Education Statistics’ Schools and Staffing Survey show that teacher salaries in high-poverty districts lag behind those of teachers in well-resourced districts, with gaps sometimes as wide as $16,000 a year.

Students of color often carry more debt as well. A 2010 College Board Advocacy & Policy Center study found that 27 percent of African-American bachelor’s degree recipients carried $30,500 or more in debt, compared with 16 percent of White undergraduates.

“It’s hard to attract someone to teaching when they have high student loans and debt,” Davenport says. “Many people can’t afford to go into teaching.”

A new, five-year grant program at Savannah State University, an HBCU in the state of Georgia, teams faculty from the School of Teacher Education and the College of Sciences and Technology to recruit, mentor, educate, and certify undergraduate math and engineering majors and STEM professionals to become certified teachers in grades 6 –12.

Partner with Community Colleges

Education programs should also offer seamless connections with local community colleges, says Davenport because of the growing number of successful transfer agreements and innovative partnerships.

Houston Community College and Lorain County Community College in Elyria, Ohio, are among two-year institutions offering teaching degrees and certificates that successfully lead students to four-year institutions.

Retention is Critical

How to increase retention rates of teachers of color may not be the biggest concern facing school districts, Herrig suggests. Instead, she says, attracting the right people to the profession should be the focus.

During the 2008 – 2009 school year, more than 19 percent of teachers of color changed schools or left the profession, compared to 15.6 percent of White teachers, mainly because of low salary combined with difficult working conditions. Of those teachers of color who did leave the classroom, many were dissatisfied and sought new careers, the research shows.

In their 2015 study, the Center for American Progress called the retention problem a “leaky pipeline.” Stopping the leak, they said could be fixed with things like monetary incentives, and professional development to ensure that the best and brightest students of color enter teaching and succeed once they are in the profession.

“If we retained more of the [diverse] educators within their first three to five years in the classroom, the shortage would be less of an issue,” says Herrig. “Think of this situation as a bucket with a hole. Right now, we have a giant hole in our bucket.”

Published in:

Published In

1-Feb-16

Advertisement

Advertisement