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Rankings of the States 2013 and Estimates of School Statistics 2014

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Rankings of the States 2013 and Estimates of School Statistics 2014
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released: March 12, 2014


Highlights

Population

State population data provide indicators of the relative demand for public education services and other public programs. From 2010 to 2011, the total U.S. resident population increased by nine-tenths of a percent (0.9%).

States that experienced the greatest percentage gains in population were:

  • Texas (2.1%),
  • Utah (1.9%),
  • Alaska (1.8%), and
  • Colorado (1.7%).

Rhode Island (-0.2%) and Michigan (-0.1%) experienced population declines (Table A-3).

Enrollment

In fall 2012, U.S. public school enrollment was 49,380,319, up 0.4 percent over fall 2011.

The largest percentage enrollment changes from fall 2011 to fall 2012 were in:

  • North Carolina (4.1%),
  • North Dakota (3.5%),
  • Utah (2.4%), and
  • Tennessee (2.1%).

Sixteen states and the District of Columbia experienced declines in student enrollment in fall 2012. The greatest declines were in:

  • Rhode Island (-2.1%),
  • South Carolina (-2.1%)
  • Vermont (-2.0%)
  • District of Columbia (-1.4%)
  • Maine (-1.2%)
  • New Hampshire (-1.1%), and
  • New York (-1.1%)

(Tables B-2, B-3).

Classroom Teachers

Changes in the number of staff employed in education institutions as well as their levels of compensation reflect trends in enrollment; changes in the economy; and specific state, local, and national program priorities. There were 3,108,500 teachers in 2012—13 (Table C-5). The average number of students per teacher declined from 16.0 in 2011—12 to 15.9 in 2012—13.

This ratio of students to teachers must not be confused with “Average Class Size,” which is the number of students assigned to a classroom for instructional purposes. Class size and student-teacher ratio are very different concepts and cannot be used interchangeably. The difference between student-teacher ratio and average class size in K—3 is 9 or 10 students (Sharp 2002). Therefore, an elementary school with a school-wide student-teacher ratio of 16:1 in kindergarten through third grade would typically have an average class size of 25 or 26 students in those same grades.

States with the highest number of students enrolled per teacher in public elementary and secondary schools in fall 2012:

  • California (24.9),
  • Oregon (21.8),
  • Utah (21.6),
  • Washington (19.7), and
  • Indiana (18.6).

States with the lowest student-teacher ratios were:

  • Vermont (9.2),
  • Nebraska (9.8),
  • New Jersey (12.0),
  • New York (12.0), and
  • New Hampshire (12.1).

Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia had average student-teacher ratios below the U.S. average (15.9) (Table C-6).

Males comprised 23.7 percent of U.S. public school teachers in 2013. States with the largest percentage of male faculty were:

  • Kansas (33.1%),
  • Oregon (30.7%), and
  • Vermont (30.2%).

States with the lowest percentage of male faculty were:

  • Virginia (17.4%),
  • Mississippi (18.3%),
  • Louisiana (18.4%),
  • South Carolina (18.6%), and
  • Georgia (20.0%).

The median was 24.1 percent (Table C-8).

Classroom Teacher Salaries

The U.S. average public school teacher salary for 2012—13 was $56,103. State average public school teacher salaries ranged from those in New York ($75,279) and Massachusetts ($72,334) at the high end to South Dakota ($39,018), Mississippi ($41,814), and Oklahoma ($44,373) at the low end (Table C-11).

Over the decade from 2002—03 to 2012—13, in constant dollars, average salaries for public school teachers decreased by 3.2 percent. Wyoming (15.2%), New York (11.9%), North Dakota (10.1%), and Massachusetts (10.0%) had the largest real increases in salaries during that 10-year period.

Adjusting for inflation, thirty-four states saw real declines in average teacher salaries over those years. Those with average salaries declining 6 percent or more were:

  • North Carolina (-15.0%),
  • Indiana (-12.3%),
  • Illinois (-9.5%),
  • Florida (-8.9%),
  • Michigan (-8.8%),
  • Georgia (-8.5%),
  • Washington (-8.5%),
  • Colorado (-8.0%),
  • West Virginia (-6.9%), and
  • Mississippi (-6.2)

(Table C-14).

Not adjusted for inflation, the U.S. average one-year change in public school teacher salaries from 2011—12 to 2012—13 was 1.3%. The largest one-year decease was in Indiana (-0.9%), and the largest one-year increase was in Alaska (4.9%) (Table C-15).

Expenditures per Student

The U.S. average per student expenditure for public elementary and secondary schools in 2012—13 fall enrollment was $10,938.

States with the highest per student expenditures were:

  • Vermont ($19,752),
  • New York ($19,523),
  • New Jersey ($19,291),
  • Alaska ($18,192),and
  • Rhode Island ($17,666).

States with the lowest per student expenditures were:

  • Arizona ($6,949),
  • Utah ($7,223),
  • Oklahoma ($7,912),
  • Indiana ($8,064), and
  • Texas ($8,275).

(Table H-11)

General Financial Resources

Total personal income data indicate the overall economic activity within a specific geographic area. It is the aggregate income from all sources received by persons residing in a state, and it has a significant effect on the total revenue or financial resources available to government jurisdictions through taxation. Personal income largely drives state tax systems; sales and income tax collections respond rapidly to its changes. Between 2010 and 2011, U.S. total personal income increased by 6.1 percent to yield $268,015 per student enrolled (Tables D-2, D-7). In contrast, combined federal, state, and local school revenue per K—12 student increased by 2.5 percent that year. For 2012—13, revenue per K—12 student increased 2.0 percent (Tables F-1, F-2).

School Revenues

School funding continues to be state oriented, although the federal share increased somewhat in recent years. Between school years 2011—12 and 2012—13, the local share of K—12 public education funding increased from 43.2 to 43.4 percent (Tables F-7, F-8) and the state share remained at roughly 46.2 percent (Tables F-9, F-10). The federal share decreased to 10.3 percent (Tables F-11, F-12). Throughout the past 10 years, state and local governments have each provided between 43 and 49 percent of the total revenues.


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